Wednesday, May 20, 2020
When Shakespeare brought Romeo and Juliet to life, he was intentional in choosing two young characters as his protagonists. Then as now, two teenagers having consensual sex is perfectly understandable. On the other hand, an adult molesting a child is reprehensible. The difference between the two situations would seem obvious. But in many states across America, from a legal standpoint, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s little distinction between Romeo and Juliets mutual decision and the abusive actions of a child molester. An older teen who has sex with his younger girlfriend can be arrested, prosecuted, and jailed for the act. Even worse, they may carry the stigma of being labeled a sex offender for the rest of their life. The problem typically arises when the male is 18 or 19, the female is between 14 and 16, and the parent of the younger teen presses charges. (Even Romeo would be labeled a sex offender today, as he was believed to be 16 and Juliet 13 when their relationship began.) Consent and Advice Though the age of consent (i.e. the age at which an individual can legally agree to have sex) varies from state to stateÃ¢â¬âand often splits along gender linesÃ¢â¬âit is definitive in one aspect: it refers to sexual acts between heterosexuals. In over half the states, sex between homosexuals is either not addressed by existing laws or is considered a crime. Recent changes in the laws governing consensual sex between minors or an adult 18 years of age and a minor 14-16 years of age have acknowledged that this intimacy is not the same as molestation. The new laws, named Ã¢â¬Å"Romeo and Juliet lawsÃ¢â¬ after ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s tragic teenage lovers, attempt to correct overly harsh penalties and prison terms meted out over the years. In 2007, these laws went into effect in Connecticut, Florida, Indiana, and Texas. Several other states have followed, with about half the states currently having some form of Romeo and Juliet law. Accidental Sex Offender In Florida, a 28-year-old man whoÃ¢â¬â¢d been placed on the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s sex offender registry was able to remove his name after the passage of FloridaÃ¢â¬â¢s Romeo and Juliet law in July 2007. At age 17, Anthony Croce began having sex with his 15-year-old girlfriend; when he turned 18, the girlÃ¢â¬â¢s disapproving mother pressed charges and Croce pleaded no contest. He was then legally compelled to register as a sex offender. FloridaÃ¢â¬â¢s new law still regards underage sex as a crime, but a judge may now determine whether to strike the sex offender designation from those previously convicted. Cases that may lead to an overturned designation would involve a victim who is age 14Ã¢â¬â17 and has agreed to consensual sex; the offender would have to be no more than four years older than the victim and have no other sex crimes on their record. Gay Bias in Rulings For teenagers who are gay or lesbian and engage in consensual sex, the laws are much tougher. A 2004 case heard by the Kansas Supreme Court had civil libertarians and gay rights groups protesting the existence of a double standard. Matthew Limon was a mentally disabled 17-year-old when he had consensual sex with a 14-year-old boy. Under the Romeo and Juliet law enacted in Kansas in 1999, Limon would have been sentenced to 15 months in prison if the boy had been a girl. But because the law states that partners must be members of the opposite sex, Ã¢â¬â¹Limon was given a 17-year sentence. California state Sen. Scott Wiener, D-San Francisco, introduced a bill in 2019 to add same-sex relationships to the states Romeo and Juliet law. The law seeks only to bring equality to gay and lesbian offenders and still would bring sex-offender status for adults to have sex with underage teens of the same sex or for a teen to have sex with anyone of the same sex under 14. Papa Dont Preach and Dont Press Charges The Romeo and Juliet laws are frequently enforced unfairly says Mark Chaffin, a researcher with the University of Oklahoma-based National Center on the Sexual Behavior of Youth. In many cases, they are enforced largely by how angry the parents of the younger party are. 2-Year Difference 10-Year Sentence One well-publicized case demonstrating the need for Romeo and Juliet legislation is that of Genarlow Wilson, a 17-year-old who was imprisoned for having consensual oral sex with a 15-year-old female. An athlete and honor student, Wilson was videotaped at a New YearÃ¢â¬â¢s Eve celebration engaging in oral sex and was sentenced to 10 years for aggravated child molestation. After serving jail time from 2003Ã¢â¬â07, the Georgia Supreme Court ruled that Wilson should be released; and this decision was followed by a change in state law that reduced consensual sex between teenagers to a misdemeanor with a maximum sentence of one year. Sources Man shed sex offender status under new Romeo and Juliet law. Associated Press. Aug. 6, 2007.New Laws Take Romeo Into Account https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/blogs/stateline/2007/07/16/new-laws-take-romeo-into-accountReynolds, Dave. Court to Decide on Discriminatory Ã¢â¬ËSodomyÃ¢â¬â¢ Law. The New Standard. Sept. 1, 2004.Why Is Gay Underage Sex Criminalized When Straight Sex Is Not? https://www.advocate.com/crime/2019/1/23/why-gay-underage-sex-criminalized-when-straight-sex-not
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The transition from childhood to adulthood is not as clear cut as the physical traits would suggest. The female transition is no exception. Culture has a major role in deciding when the change occurs. Some mark a specific age as the point of passage while others are known to acknowledge physical changes. Regardless, cultures around the world understand that there is a distinct difference between the two. Toni MorrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s The Bluest Eye tells a story in the perspective of a young black girl, Claudia, as well as the perspective of her as a woman. Morrison uses a shifting narrative perspective to show that the abilities to understand and reflect are what separate the educated woman from the innocent girl. Morrison shows that a properÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦She shows fearlessness when she stops the bullies from harassing Pecola and she has a presence that demands attention wherever she goes. Once the boys feel MaureenÃ¢â¬â¢s presence, they are suddenly Ã¢â¬Å"not w illing to beat up three girls under her watchful gazeÃ¢â¬ (Morrison 67). The reason that Claudia and Frieda are drawn to Maureen stems from the fact that they do not have the same carefree attitude. Morrison establishes the worry free attitude in order to show how status in society has a major effect on the development of girls. Maureen has money and attention and most likely will crave such as an adult. Claudia and the others have minimal expenditures in this novel which signals that they will likely think of spending as a privilege and not a necessity in their adult years. An important part of being a child is being accustomed to the way people interact with each other. This curiosity is universal among all girls. Girls in MorrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s novel are constantly trying to solve problems on their own. One such incidence comes with ClaudiaÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge of puberty. By experience, Frieda urgently tries to assist Pecola, while Claudia is ordered to hide the evidence from their mother. Claudia, however, has no idea of the circumstances and rushes her tasks insisting that she Ã¢â¬Å"had to stay behind and not see any of itÃ¢â¬ (Morrison 29). Many would stay behind and clean instead of watch the operation that was necessary. CuriosityShow MoreRelated Compare racial and cultural struggles in Alice WalkerÃ¢â¬â¢s The Color2850 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesWalkerÃ¢â¬â¢s The Color Purple as well as Toni MorrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s The Bluest Eye. In African-American texts, blacks are seen as struggling with the patriarchal worlds they live in order to achieve a sense of Self and Identity. The texts I have chosen illustrate the hazards of Western religion, Rape, Patriarchal Dominance and Colonial notions of white supremacy; an intend to show how the protagonists of Alice WalkerÃ¢â¬â¢s The Color Purple as well as Toni MorrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s The Bluest Eye, cope with or crumble due to theseRead MoreThe Theory, History, and Development of Magical Realism Essay examples3188 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesanother German and an art critic, to refer to paintings that demonstrate an altered reality. With reference to magical realism he writes: We recognize this world, although now - not only because we have emerged from a dream - we look on it with new eyes . . . In contrast, we are offered a new style that is thoroughly of this world, that celebrates the mundane. . . But considered carefully, this new world of objects is still alien to the current idea of Realism. . . it employs various techniques inherited
One of the main advantages of using a database system is that the organization can exert, via the DBA, centralized management and control over the data. The database administrator is the focus of the centralized control. Any application requiring a change in the structure of a data record requires an arrangement with the DBA, who makes the necessary modifications. Such modifications do not affect other applications or users of the record in question. Reduction of Redundancies: Centralized control of data by the DBA avoids unnecessary duplication of data and effectively reduces the total amount of data storage required. It also eliminates the extra processing necessary to trace the required data in a large mass of data. * Elimination of Inconsistencies: The main advantage of avoiding duplication is the elimination of inconsistencies that tend to be present in redundant data files. Any redundancies that exist in the DBMS are controlled and the system ensures that these multiple copies are consistent. * Shared Data: A database allows the sharing of data under its control by any number of application programs or users. For example, the applications for the public relations and payroll departments can share the same data. * Integrity: Centralized control can also ensure that adequate checks are incorporated in the DBMS to provide data integrity. Data integrity means that the data contained in the database is both accurate and consistent. Therefore, data values being entered for the storage could be checked to ensure that they fall within a specified range and are of the correct format. Security: Data is of vital importance to an organization and may be confidential. Such confidential data must not be accessed by unauthorized persons. The DBA who has the ultimate responsibility for the data in the DBMS can ensure that proper access procedures are followed, including proper authentication schemes for access to the DBMS and additional checks before permitting access to sensitive data. Different level s of security could be implemented for various types of data and operations. * Conflict Resolution: Since the database is under the control of the DBA, he/she should resolve the conflicting requirements of various users and applications. In essence, the DBA chooses the best file structure and access method to get optimal performance for the response-critical applications, while permitting less critical applications to continue to use the database, albeit with a relatively slower response. * Data Independence: Data independence is usually considered from two points of view: physical data independence and logical data independence. Physical data independence allows changes in the physical storage devices or organization of the files to be made without requiring changes in the conceptual view or any of the external views and hence in the application programs using the database. Thus, the files may migrate from one type of physical media to another or the file structure may change without any need for changes in the application program. * Logical data independence implies that applicat ion programs need not be changed if fields are added to an existing record; nor do they have to be changed if fields not used by applications programs are deleted. Logical data independence indicates that the conceptual schema can be changed without affecting the existing external schemas. Data Independence is advantageous in the database environment since it allows for changes at one level of the database without affecting other levels. These changes are absorbed by the mapping between the levels. * Cost of software/hardware and migration * Problem associated with centralization. * Complexity of Backup and Recovery. 2. Explain the importance of ER modeling techniques in database development and normalization with examples. (P2. 2) A database can be modeled as: * a collection of entities, * relationship among entities. * An entity is an object that exists and is divided from other objects. * Example: specific person, company, event, plant * Entities have attributes * Example: people have names and addresses * An entity set is a set of entities of the same type that share the same properties. * Example: set of all persons, companies, trees, holi days * Rectangles represent entity sets. * Diamonds represent relationship sets. * Lines link attributes to entity sets and entity sets to relationship sets. Underline indicates primary key attributes As one important aspect of E-R modeling, database designers represent their data model by E-R diagrams. These diagrams enable designers and users to express their understanding of what the planned database is intended to do and how it might work, and to communicate about the database through a common language. The myriad of styles and conventions for E-R diagramming make it difficult to choose the best one. This book utilizes an acceptable style, but certainly not the only one. Each organization that uses E-R diagrams must adopt a specific style for representing The various components. You can be sure that the principles of E-R diagramming are independent of the stylistic details. E-R Diagram 3. Explain phases of a Database Development Life Cycle (DDLC) and analysis the importance of each phase. (P2. 1) A software development life cycle model (SDLC) consists of a set of processes (planning, requirements, design, development, testing, installation and maintenance) defined to accomplish the task of developing a software application that is functionally correct and satisfies the userÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. These set of processes, when arranged in different orders, characterize different types of life cycles. When developing a database, the order of these tasks is very important to efficiently and correctly transform the userÃ¢â¬â¢s requirements into an operational database. These SDLCs are generally defined very broadly and are not specific for a particular type of application. In this paper the authors emphasize that there should be a SDLC that is specific to database applications. Database applications do not have the same characteristics as other software applications and thus a specific database development life cycle (DBDLC) is needed. A DBDLC should accommodate properties like scope restriction, progressive enhancement, incremental planning and pre-defined structure. Keywords: Software Development, Database, DBMS, lifecycle model, traditional lifecycles Database management systems are generally categorized as transaction processing systems, decision support systems and/or knowledge-based systems. During their development each of these types of DBMS introduces different problems and challenges. Traditionally, SDLC models designed for developing DBMS followed the design-first-implement-later approach because of the DBMS were mainly of the transaction processing type [Weitzel and Kerschberg, 1989]. The authors believe, as we will explain later, that the design-first-implement-later approach does not work for the databases underlying data mining or knowledge-base systems or for that matter for any system where the requirements change very frequently. 4 . Design and develop a fully functional database by using DDLC concepts including following steps (P3. ); 4. 1 Analysis all the existing problems and outline the problem definition for the above scenario and give the database solutions to overcome the problems identified. (P1. 1) For a large enterprise, there is a very large body of crucial information. These are the Ã¢â¬Å"crown jewelsÃ¢â¬ of the information technology part of the company. This information lasts for the whole lifetime of the enterprise. But applications come and go, like migrating birds. The next application to come along might want access data in a different way, for important reasons. The structure of the database structure must adapt well to these new and changing demands. With the older styles of data organization (called Ã¢â¬Å"networkÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"CODASYLÃ¢â¬ , roughly speaking), sometimes the new application could not be done efficiently. Many times, for all practical purposes, it was impossible to write the application with acceptable performance. You can find the details of this in many books, but to give just one analogy: suppose you have a program with nested loops. In many cases (not 2D arrays), itÃ¢â¬â¢s pretty obvious which loop ought to be on the outside. Well, imagine if you forced to do it the other way, even if it made the program very much slower. And thatÃ¢â¬â¢s just one example. To solve this, we want data organization that can do two things. First, give every application a view of the database that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t change over time, so that the application keeps working. Second, have a way to change the physical organization of the data without changing any of the software that uses the database system, which may be needed to make the new applications faster without hurting the old ones, or not hurting enough that it matters much. This is called Ã¢â¬Å"data independence. Ã¢â¬ * The Relational Model A novel and effective solution to data independence, the Ã¢â¬Å"relationalÃ¢â¬ , . By representing data in relations, in normalized form, you can solve both of the above problems. I wonÃ¢â¬â¢t go over all that here; I recommend Ã¢â¬Å"An Introduction to Database SystemsÃ¢â¬ By the way, notice that the name of the book isnÃ¢â¬â¢t Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ to Relational Database Systems,Ã¢â¬ even though thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what the book is. Why bother with a superlative adjective, when Ã¢â¬Å"everybody knowsÃ¢â¬ that all database systems, other than ancient ones, are relational? The relational model, as an abstract concept, is an excellent and brilliant solution to the data independence problem. Later weÃ¢â¬â¢ll see that that is not the only problem for which people want to store data. But in the next post, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll look into how well actual relational database systems implement the concept. 4. 2 Draw the conceptual model for the above scenario with possible entities and relationships. Transform the conceptual design into logical design. Normalize the data into 3 NF clearly showing the steps of normalizations. Include user interfaces) (P3. 2) 4. 3 Conduct a survey to evaluate your database development efficiency and methods of improvement. (P3. 3) You are required to prepare, distribute a feedback form for your system users and collect their feedback.
Thursday, April 23, 2020
The movie Spanglish shows many examples of conflicts. The movie displayed conflict in romantic relationships, in parenting decisions, healthy lifestyle, and the one I elected to focus on, cultural conflict. Deborah Clasky, a wife and mother of two children, hires a poor Mexican housekeeper, Flor Moreno. When the two families move in together for the summer into a Malibu beach house the conflict of colliding cultures and values begin. Flor, who was abandoned by her husband, needed one last opportunity for change in order to give her daughter a better life and future. Flor, who does not speak any English, decides to emigrate from Mexico to the United States. In order to raise Cristina properly she needed as much of a security of her own culture as possible so she rolled through Texas, just 34% Hispanic, to Los Angeles, 48% Hispanic. Flor felt she was right back at home in Los Angeles. For six years Flor and Cristina did not Venture outside their new community. We will write a custom essay sample on Spanish Conflict or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page That was until she was hired as a housekeeper by Deborah Clasky. Deborah Clasky a former business woman, and now a stay at home mother often displayed negative behavior that was unsettling to both families. Deborah was obsessed with beauty and physical fitness. Deborah was constantly pushing for her overweight daughter, Bernice, to lose weight. She would tell Bernice she really could do without the sandwich she was eating. She went as far as purchasing a new wardrobe for Bernice that was a size too small. Telling Bernice that she knows she can lose the weight and she would fit into the clothes in no time. After the two families move in together in the Malibu beach house, Cristina becomes exposed to the American way of life. Deborah decides to take her on a day outing without asking Flor for permission. She left a note, written in English for Flor. The note stated that she was stealing her daughter for the day. Cristina returned with pink and blue hair streaks leaving Flor furious. Deborah did not think it was a big deal to spend time with Cristina without asking for permission. Flor thought otherwise. Flor had Cristina translate a note to give to Deborah explaining to her that it was not ok to take her daughter without her permission. In another incident, John, DeborahÃ¢â¬â¢s husband offers to pay the kids for sea glass found on the beach. Cristina finds an abundant amount of sea glass and John has to pay her more than six hundred dollars. Again, Flor is furious that John agreed to pay that amount of money without consulting her first. The final incident that infuriated Flor was when Deborah helped Cristina obtain a scholarship to a private school. Deborah communicated the news to Cristina prior to informing Flor. This left Flor in a position where it was difficult to say no. Deborah gave Cristina a necklace on her first day of school and stated it was from her, Bernice, and Flor. Flor refused to associate herself with the gift and clearly told her daughter the gift was not from her. Flor was feeling her heritage and culture slip away as her daughter was living the American way of life. Flor told her cousin that she was not sure if she was worried that her daughter would feel odd in the new school or more worried that she would feel the same as them. When Flor does not show up to her Grandmothers party, Flor realizes it is time to make a change. The only thing Flor could offer her daughter was her character and heritage. With her daughters new American life style she had nothing left to offer her. She quit her job and removed Cristina from the private school. She asked Christina a difficult question. She asked her, if what she wants for herself was to become someone different than her? I believe the conflict could have been handled more effectively. Deborah should have consulted with Flor prior to communicating her ideas to Cristina. For example, Deborah should have asked Flor if she would consider sending Cristina to a private school before presenting the offer to Cristina. Deborah communicating the idea to Cristina first put Flor in a difficult position to say no. Communicating with Flor first would have also been a solution for both the outing and sea glass incident. It would have showed that Deborah respected Flor and her decisions when it came to raising Cristina. Deborah and Flor possessed the four factors that are considered a conflict. Two people are interdependent; they each need something form the other. Both parties blame the other or find fault with them for causing the problem. One or more of the parties is angry or emotionally upset. The partiesÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviors are affecting their relationship with each other and their relationships with others (Dana, 2000). The relationship between the two families dwindled to nothing following the conflict of colliding cultures and values.
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Volunteer Recognition Volunteers are needed in a very broad range of organizations. These organizations include everything from non-profit organizations, internet companies, cities, schools and churches. Ages of volunteers also range from pre-teen to elderly. Volunteers are a key element in any type of organization. Public awareness and recognition of how important volunteers really are is an issue sometimes not easily solved. Recognizing these outstanding individuals is very important when it comes to keeping and recruiting more volunteers for your organization. Volunteers need to know that their hard work and the time that they give up is very appreciated. There are many different ways to recognize volunteers. One way is by holding community events. There was an event put together in a local community, and the community name the day, Ã¢â¬Å"Join Hands DayÃ¢â¬ . They got all the volunteers from the surrounding communities to submit to them a handprint and these were all displayed in the local park. The whole community participated in this event and there were refreshments and entertainment for everyone. The local newspaper ran articles and all the volunteers knew just how appreciated they really were, by everyone who sponsored and attended the big event. Another way to recognize the volunteers is by doing something a bit more formal. Holding banquets and award ceremonies are wonderful ways to recognize your volunteers. Giving out awards and gifts gives the organization a chance to recognize their volunteers and to give them a token to take home with them to show them they are appreciated. It is fun to hold drawings and have some entertainment also at these ceremonies. Giving you volunteers a fun evening in honor of their hard work can bring about great rewards for an organization. If your organization is not looking to hold an event a personal way to show appreciation is to give gifts to all of the volunteers. Ther... Free Essays on Non Profite Organization Free Essays on Non Profite Organization Volunteer Recognition Volunteers are needed in a very broad range of organizations. These organizations include everything from non-profit organizations, internet companies, cities, schools and churches. Ages of volunteers also range from pre-teen to elderly. Volunteers are a key element in any type of organization. Public awareness and recognition of how important volunteers really are is an issue sometimes not easily solved. Recognizing these outstanding individuals is very important when it comes to keeping and recruiting more volunteers for your organization. Volunteers need to know that their hard work and the time that they give up is very appreciated. There are many different ways to recognize volunteers. One way is by holding community events. There was an event put together in a local community, and the community name the day, Ã¢â¬Å"Join Hands DayÃ¢â¬ . They got all the volunteers from the surrounding communities to submit to them a handprint and these were all displayed in the local park. The whole community participated in this event and there were refreshments and entertainment for everyone. The local newspaper ran articles and all the volunteers knew just how appreciated they really were, by everyone who sponsored and attended the big event. Another way to recognize the volunteers is by doing something a bit more formal. Holding banquets and award ceremonies are wonderful ways to recognize your volunteers. Giving out awards and gifts gives the organization a chance to recognize their volunteers and to give them a token to take home with them to show them they are appreciated. It is fun to hold drawings and have some entertainment also at these ceremonies. Giving you volunteers a fun evening in honor of their hard work can bring about great rewards for an organization. If your organization is not looking to hold an event a personal way to show appreciation is to give gifts to all of the volunteers. Ther...
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Speech Topics to Meet Oral Communication Standards Speech topics are a key element for impromptu oral presentation activities. Coming up with them can be a challenge for the teacher. You can use this collection of speech topics for oral presentations or use them to inspire your own variations. Impromptu Oral Presentation Activity Put all of the topics on slips of paper and have your students pick out of a hat. You can either have the student begin the presentation immediately or give a few minutes to prepare. You may have a student pick the topic just before the student before them presents so they have that time to think. In this case, give the very first student a few minutes to prepare. Impromptu Oral Communication Speech Topics You are an ant. Convince an anteater to not eat you.Explain three different ways to eat an Oreo cookie.Tell us about a nickname you have and how you got it.Convince us to vote for you as president of the USA.Explain three uses for a pencil other than for writing.Read us a letter you might write home when you are staying at a circus training summer camp.Tell us about your summer plans.Convince us that homework is harmful to your health.Tell us about your favorite pet and why it should win the Greatest Pet Ever award.If you were an animal, what would you be?You are a salesperson trying to sell us the shirt you have on.Explain how a smart person might not be wise.If you were the teacher, how would our class be different?Tell us about the hardest thing you have ever done.You are a mad scientist. Tell us about your latest invention.You are a famous sports player. Describe your best moment of a game.You are a famous rock star. Explain what the lyrics of your latest hit song mean.Tell us ab out the best job. Explain the benefits of drinking milk.Tell us how to become a millionaire.You are 30 years old. Tell us how you became a millionaire by age 18.Tell us about the best dream youve ever had.Create a myth that explains why pelicans have large beaks.Tell us how to make a new friend.Tell us about the most fun recess activity.Tell us about your favorite holiday.Tell us how to make your favorite meal.Explain which came first: the chicken or the egg.Explain the rules to your favorite game.If everything in the world had to change to the same color, what color would you choose and why?Explain how you would use a hat to catch butterflies. Be sure to identify the type of hat that is required.You are a piece of paper. Describe how we should use you before you get recycled.Explain how to make a pizza.Explain four uses for a drinking glass other than for holding a liquid.Convince our principal to give students their birthdays off of school.Describe how you would modify a snail so it can go faster.Ex plain the best way to teach an old dog a new trick. Describe the life cycle of a frog or butterfly.Explain what you would do if you were a monkey suddenly set free from a zoo.Describe one school rule you would change and why.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Habituation in Spirostomum - Essay Example The unicellular organisms, Spirostomum also undergo changes on habituation. Spirostomum are ciliated protozoa and habituation helps in studying behavioral changes in these parallel to habituation. But it is viewed as a process to filter out iterative stimuli with no significant changes. And the easiest way to judge the changes is that as habituation is a homeostatic process it optimizes the Spirostomum's likelihood of judging the importance of the stimulus in a new iterative series or a change in it. The method to detect the low or high responsiveness to the stimuli is that if we take the initial responsiveness as organism's threshold prior to stimulus occurrence then if it has high initial response it is said to have lower threshold and if low initial response visa versa. In Spirostomum the time course of contraction is very rapid with 4 to 5 mS as the cells contract at a rate in excess of 100 cell lengths sec-1. And as the stimulus strength duration judges the threshold response, Spirostomum is said to have full or no contraction at all. The changes in resting membrane potential do not cause initial contractions while microinjection of calcium buffers induce contractions. The Spirostomum are habituated to a mechanical shock and cause brief contractions. And as the stimulation is repeated the number of contractions decreases. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein have also been found to increase during habituation as per the foundations of Applewhite, Gardner and Lapan. As the RNA and protein increases occur after a few consecutive stimulations RNA and protein inhibitors can also be used in combination. Though large amounts of RNA and proteins are not needed for habituation in protozoan Spirostomum. For the process of habituation firstly place the individuals on the slide. Tap the slide with mechanical stimulus every four seconds. You'll notice a change in Spirostomum behavior after 12 to 20 stimuli. The calculation of the percentage of the protozoa contracting can be done by counting from photographs taken during the process. Various studies have shown that Spirostomum can remember for ten minutes maximum. The term behavior is used to extend the original meaning to the concept of primary internal processes and changes occurred due to habituation in single cellular organisms. It includes their iterative external stimulation, their initial threshold to the initial stimulus and the behavioral changes in them. The shorter life span of habituation in Spirostomum also suggests that synthesis of macromolecules may not be necessary. Therefore, the adaptive significance of habituation in Spirostomum as viewed across the science of phylogeny. Sources / References: 1) Smith. James, Eisenstein. E.M., Eisenstein. D. Research & Development. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Los Angeles, CA. The Evolutionary Significance of Habituation and Sensitization Across Phylogeny: A Behavioral Homeostasis Model. 2) The Department of Zoology. University of Hul. Hawkins. R.B. 3) http://www.nature.com. Journal. 4) Applewhite and Gardner (1968). Applewhite, Gardner and Lapan(1969) 5) http://www.springerlink.com/content 6) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal 7) Protein and RNA Inhibitors and Protozoan Habituation. Gardener. Frank.T, Applewhite.